Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 275,000 in February, and the unemployment rate
increased to 3.9 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains
occurred in health care, in government, in food services and drinking places, in social
assistance, and in transportation and warehousing.

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics.
The establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry.
For more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two
surveys, see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

The unemployment rate rose by 0.2 percentage point to 3.9 percent in February, and the
number of unemployed people increased by 334,000 to 6.5 million. A year earlier, the
jobless rate was 3.6 percent, and the number of unemployed people was 6.0 million. (See
table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.5 percent) and
teenagers (12.5 percent) increased over the month. The jobless rates for adult men (3.5
percent), Whites (3.4 percent), Blacks (5.6 percent), Asians (3.4 percent), and
Hispanics (5.0 percent) showed little or no change in February. (See tables A-1, A-2,
and A-3.)

Among the unemployed, the number of permanent job losers increased by 174,000 to 1.7
million in February. The number of people on temporary layoff was little changed at
827,000. (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more), at 1.2 million,
was little changed in February. The long-term unemployed accounted for 18.7 percent of
all unemployed people. (See table A-12.)

In February, the labor force participation rate was 62.5 percent for the third consecutive
month, and the employment-population ratio was little changed at 60.1 percent. These
measures showed little or no change over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.4 million, changed
little in February. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment,
were working part time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find
full-time jobs. (See table A-8.)

In February, the number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job, at
5.7 million, was little changed. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because
they were not actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were
unavailable to take a job. (See table A-1.)

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally
attached to the labor force changed little at 1.6 million in February. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12
months but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of
discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were
available for them, was little changed at 425,000 in February. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 275,000 in February, above the average monthly
gain of 230,000 over the prior 12 months. In February, job gains occurred in health care,
in government, in food services and drinking places, in social assistance, and in
transportation and warehousing. (See table B-1.)

Health care added 67,000 jobs in February, above the average monthly gain of 58,000 over
the prior 12 months. In February, job growth continued in ambulatory health care
services (+28,000), hospitals (+28,000), and nursing and residential care facilities
(+11,000).

Government employment rose by 52,000 in February, about the same as the prior 12-month
average gain (+53,000). Over the month, employment continued to trend up in local
government, excluding education (+26,000) and federal government (+9,000).

Employment in food services and drinking places increased by 42,000 in February, after
changing little over the prior 3 months.

Social assistance added 24,000 jobs in February, about the same as the prior 12-month
average gain of 23,000. Over the month, job growth continued in individual and family
services (+19,000).

Employment in transportation and warehousing rose by 20,000 in February. Couriers and
messengers added 17,000 jobs, after losing 70,000 jobs over the prior 3 months. In
February, job growth also occurred in air transportation (+4,000), while warehousing
and storage lost 7,000 jobs. Employment in the transportation and warehousing industry
is down by 144,000 since reaching a peak in July 2022.

In February, employment continued to trend up in construction (+23,000), in line with
the average monthly gain of 18,000 over the prior 12 months. Over the month, heavy
and civil engineering construction added 13,000 jobs.

Retail trade employment changed little in February (+19,000) and has shown little net
change over the year. Over the month, job gains in general merchandise retailers
(+17,000); health and personal care retailers (+6,000); and automotive parts,
accessories, and tire retailers (+5,000) were partially offset by job losses in
building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers (-6,000) and electronics
and appliance retailers (-2,000).

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including
mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade;
information; financial activities; professional and business services; and other
services.

In February, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
edged up by 5 cents to $34.57, following an increase of 18 cents in January. Average
hourly earnings were up by 0.1 percent in February and 4.3 percent over the year.
In February, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory
employees edged up by 7 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $29.71. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

In February, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
edged up by 0.1 hour to 34.3 hours, following a decline of 0.2 hour in January. In
manufacturing, the average workweek was little changed at 39.9 hours, and overtime
increased by 0.2 hour to 3.0 hours in February. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.3 hour to
33.8 hours, following a decline of 0.3 hour in January. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for December was revised down by
43,000, from +333,000 to +290,000, and the change for January was revised down by
124,000, from +353,000 to +229,000. With these revisions, employment in December
and January combined is 167,000 lower than previously reported. (Monthly revisions
result from additional reports received from businesses and government agencies
since the last published estimates and from the recalculation of seasonal factors.)


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Change from:
Jan.
2024-
Feb.
2024

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,112 267,991 267,540 267,711 171

Civilian labor force

166,263 167,451 167,276 167,426 150

Participation rate

62.5 62.5 62.5 62.5 0.0

Employed

160,301 161,183 161,152 160,968 -184

Employment-population ratio

60.2 60.1 60.2 60.1 -0.1

Unemployed

5,962 6,268 6,124 6,458 334

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 0.2

Not in labor force

99,849 100,540 100,265 100,285 20

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

3.3 3.3 3.2 3.5 0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

11.1 11.9 10.6 12.5 1.9

White

3.2 3.5 3.4 3.4 0.0

Black or African American

5.7 5.2 5.3 5.6 0.3

Asian

3.4 3.1 2.9 3.4 0.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

5.4 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0

Total, 25 years and over

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

5.8 6.0 6.0 6.1 0.1

High school graduates, no college

3.6 4.2 4.3 4.2 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 -0.2

Bachelor’s degree and higher

2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2,766 3,058 3,028 3,216 188

Job leavers

888 833 794 711 -83

Reentrants

1,844 1,741 1,834 1,946 112

New entrants

521 609 550 611 61

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,294 2,191 2,140 2,326 186

5 to 14 weeks

1,838 1,791 1,848 1,933 85

15 to 26 weeks

812 1,104 867 974 107

27 weeks and over

1,051 1,245 1,277 1,203 -74

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

4,070 4,211 4,422 4,376 -46

Slack work or business conditions

2,842 2,960 2,994 2,863 -131

Could only find part-time work

866 964 1,026 1,104 78

Part time for noneconomic reasons

21,780 22,458 22,156 22,309 153

Persons not in the labor force

Marginally attached to the labor force

1,419 1,562 1,654 1,558 -96

Discouraged workers

367 346 452 425 -27

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

287 290 229 275

Total private

226 214 177 223

Goods-producing

26 33 24 19

Mining and logging

2 3 -3 0

Construction

26 18 19 23

Manufacturing

-2 12 8 -4

Durable goods(1)

0 19 -1 2

Motor vehicles and parts

1.9 4.6 2.4 -0.4

Nondurable goods

-2 -7 9 -6

Private service-providing

200 181 153 204

Wholesale trade

12.5 7.4 -3.3 -1.2

Retail trade

88.5 32.3 15.2 18.7

Transportation and warehousing

-21.4 -18.3 -28.9 19.7

Utilities

0.7 2.4 1.9 3.2

Information

-18 13 6 2

Financial activities

1 6 -1 1

Professional and business services(1)

8 13 40 9

Temporary help services

-25.3 -21.3 -1.2 -15.4

Private education and health services(1)

62 84 107 85

Health care and social assistance

64.5 76.1 86.6 90.7

Leisure and hospitality

67 41 8 58

Other services

0 0 8 9

Government

61 76 52 52

(3-month average change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

302 212 234 265

Total private

239 155 181 205

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES(2)

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

81.4 81.3 81.4 81.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.5 34.4 34.2 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$33.15 $34.34 $34.52 $34.57

Average weekly earnings

$1,143.68 $1,181.30 $1,180.58 $1,185.75

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

114.8 115.9 115.4 115.9

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.2 -0.4 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

181.9 190.3 190.4 191.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.5 0.1 0.6

DIFFUSION INDEX
(Over 1-month span)(5)

Total private (250 industries)

57.4 63.0 61.8 62.6

Manufacturing (72 industries)

50.7 54.2 54.2 57.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

266,112 267,540 267,711 266,112 267,642 267,822 267,991 267,540 267,711

Civilian labor force

166,178 166,428 167,285 166,263 167,723 168,127 167,451 167,276 167,426

Participation rate

62.4 62.2 62.5 62.5 62.7 62.8 62.5 62.5 62.5

Employed

159,713 159,650 160,315 160,301 161,280 161,866 161,183 161,152 160,968

Employment-population ratio

60.0 59.7 59.9 60.2 60.3 60.4 60.1 60.2 60.1

Unemployed

6,465 6,778 6,970 5,962 6,443 6,262 6,268 6,124 6,458

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.1 4.2 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9

Not in labor force

99,934 101,113 100,426 99,849 99,919 99,695 100,540 100,265 100,285

Persons who currently want a job

4,987 5,964 5,546 5,113 5,376 5,343 5,671 5,793 5,672

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

130,072 130,436 130,520 130,072 130,816 130,903 130,985 130,436 130,520

Civilian labor force

88,382 88,014 88,299 88,388 88,968 89,555 89,250 88,507 88,391

Participation rate

67.9 67.5 67.7 68.0 68.0 68.4 68.1 67.9 67.7

Employed

84,666 83,959 84,391 85,185 85,327 85,981 85,794 85,034 84,993

Employment-population ratio

65.1 64.4 64.7 65.5 65.2 65.7 65.5 65.2 65.1

Unemployed

3,717 4,055 3,908 3,203 3,641 3,574 3,456 3,473 3,398

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.6 4.4 3.6 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8

Not in labor force

41,689 42,422 42,221 41,684 41,848 41,348 41,735 41,929 42,129

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,346 121,539 121,611 121,346 122,029 122,111 122,187 121,539 121,611

Civilian labor force

85,363 85,134 85,313 85,145 85,687 86,256 86,007 85,364 85,180

Participation rate

70.3 70.0 70.2 70.2 70.2 70.6 70.4 70.2 70.0

Employed

82,048 81,485 81,802 82,340 82,526 83,084 82,958 82,304 82,178

Employment-population ratio

67.6 67.0 67.3 67.9 67.6 68.0 67.9 67.7 67.6

Unemployed

3,315 3,650 3,511 2,805 3,161 3,172 3,050 3,060 3,002

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.3 4.1 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5

Not in labor force

35,983 36,405 36,299 36,201 36,343 35,854 36,180 36,175 36,431

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

136,040 137,104 137,191 136,040 136,826 136,919 137,006 137,104 137,191

Civilian labor force

77,796 78,413 78,986 77,875 78,755 78,572 78,201 78,768 79,035

Participation rate

57.2 57.2 57.6 57.2 57.6 57.4 57.1 57.5 57.6

Employed

75,047 75,691 75,924 75,116 75,953 75,885 75,389 76,118 75,975

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.2 55.3 55.2 55.5 55.4 55.0 55.5 55.4

Unemployed

2,749 2,723 3,062 2,759 2,801 2,688 2,811 2,650 3,060

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.5 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9

Not in labor force

58,245 58,691 58,205 58,165 58,071 58,346 58,805 58,336 58,156

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

127,613 128,503 128,581 127,613 128,342 128,430 128,513 128,503 128,581

Civilian labor force

74,823 75,382 75,995 74,703 75,487 75,399 75,047 75,529 75,835

Participation rate

58.6 58.7 59.1 58.5 58.8 58.7 58.4 58.8 59.0

Employed

72,354 72,909 73,299 72,257 73,066 73,049 72,587 73,144 73,182

Employment-population ratio

56.7 56.7 57.0 56.6 56.9 56.9 56.5 56.9 56.9

Unemployed

2,470 2,473 2,696 2,446 2,421 2,350 2,460 2,385 2,653

Unemployment rate

3.3 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5

Not in labor force

52,790 53,121 52,586 52,910 52,856 53,031 53,466 52,974 52,746

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,153 17,498 17,519 17,153 17,270 17,281 17,291 17,498 17,519

Civilian labor force

5,992 5,911 5,978 6,415 6,549 6,472 6,396 6,383 6,411

Participation rate

34.9 33.8 34.1 37.4 37.9 37.5 37.0 36.5 36.6

Employed

5,311 5,256 5,214 5,704 5,688 5,733 5,638 5,704 5,608

Employment-population ratio

31.0 30.0 29.8 33.3 32.9 33.2 32.6 32.6 32.0

Unemployed

680 655 763 711 861 739 758 679 803

Unemployment rate

11.4 11.1 12.8 11.1 13.1 11.4 11.9 10.6 12.5

Not in labor force

11,161 11,587 11,541 10,738 10,721 10,809 10,895 11,115 11,108

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

204,118 204,608 204,677 204,118 204,867 204,949 205,022 204,608 204,677

Civilian labor force

126,754 126,338 126,960 126,800 127,612 127,773 127,226 126,962 127,040

Participation rate

62.1 61.7 62.0 62.1 62.3 62.3 62.1 62.1 62.1

Employed

122,285 121,515 122,180 122,764 123,198 123,550 122,802 122,663 122,685

Employment-population ratio

59.9 59.4 59.7 60.1 60.1 60.3 59.9 60.0 59.9

Unemployed

4,470 4,823 4,779 4,036 4,414 4,223 4,424 4,299 4,356

Unemployment rate

3.5 3.8 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.4

Not in labor force

77,364 78,270 77,717 77,318 77,255 77,177 77,796 77,646 77,637

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

66,225 65,675 65,748 66,105 66,363 66,695 66,405 65,869 65,685

Participation rate

70.1 69.6 69.6 70.0 70.0 70.3 70.0 69.8 69.6

Employed

63,842 63,018 63,315 64,138 64,148 64,559 64,208 63,674 63,658

Employment-population ratio

67.6 66.8 67.1 67.9 67.6 68.1 67.7 67.5 67.4

Unemployed

2,383 2,657 2,433 1,968 2,215 2,136 2,197 2,195 2,027

Unemployment rate

3.6 4.0 3.7 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,932 56,154 56,629 55,786 56,209 56,130 55,844 56,219 56,454

Participation rate

57.6 57.6 58.0 57.4 57.6 57.5 57.2 57.6 57.9

Employed

54,309 54,474 54,791 54,182 54,621 54,609 54,175 54,615 54,646

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.8 56.2 55.8 56.0 56.0 55.5 56.0 56.0

Unemployed

1,623 1,679 1,838 1,603 1,588 1,521 1,669 1,604 1,808

Unemployment rate

2.9 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,597 4,510 4,583 4,909 5,040 4,947 4,976 4,874 4,902

Participation rate

36.8 35.6 36.1 39.3 40.2 39.5 39.7 38.4 38.6

Employed

4,133 4,022 4,075 4,444 4,430 4,382 4,418 4,374 4,381

Employment-population ratio

33.1 31.7 32.1 35.6 35.4 35.0 35.3 34.5 34.5

Unemployed

463 487 508 465 611 565 558 500 520

Unemployment rate

10.1 10.8 11.1 9.5 12.1 11.4 11.2 10.3 10.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,519 34,813 34,849 34,519 34,788 34,821 34,853 34,813 34,849

Civilian labor force

21,770 21,904 22,084 21,864 21,902 22,171 22,094 22,051 22,190

Participation rate

63.1 62.9 63.4 63.3 63.0 63.7 63.4 63.3 63.7

Employed

20,488 20,703 20,810 20,613 20,636 20,886 20,952 20,887 20,950

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.5 59.7 59.7 59.3 60.0 60.1 60.0 60.1

Unemployed

1,282 1,201 1,274 1,252 1,266 1,285 1,143 1,164 1,240

Unemployment rate

5.9 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.6

Not in labor force

12,749 12,909 12,765 12,655 12,886 12,650 12,759 12,762 12,659

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,153 10,197 10,300 10,194 10,048 10,299 10,294 10,266 10,344

Participation rate

68.9 68.9 69.5 69.2 67.7 69.3 69.2 69.4 69.8

Employed

9,593 9,606 9,615 9,670 9,520 9,648 9,821 9,717 9,709

Employment-population ratio

65.1 64.9 64.9 65.6 64.1 64.9 66.0 65.7 65.5

Unemployed

560 590 685 524 528 651 473 548 636

Unemployment rate

5.5 5.8 6.6 5.1 5.3 6.3 4.6 5.3 6.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

10,876 10,940 11,048 10,870 11,065 11,067 11,014 10,967 11,050

Participation rate

63.0 62.8 63.3 63.0 63.6 63.6 63.2 62.9 63.4

Employed

10,301 10,416 10,563 10,307 10,475 10,533 10,486 10,445 10,568

Employment-population ratio

59.7 59.8 60.6 59.7 60.3 60.5 60.2 59.9 60.6

Unemployed

575 525 485 563 590 534 528 521 482

Unemployment rate

5.3 4.8 4.4 5.2 5.3 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

741 767 737 801 789 805 786 819 796

Participation rate

29.5 29.6 28.4 31.8 30.9 31.5 30.7 31.6 30.7

Employed

594 681 632 635 642 705 644 724 673

Employment-population ratio

23.6 26.3 24.3 25.2 25.1 27.6 25.2 27.9 25.9

Unemployed

147 86 105 166 147 100 142 95 122

Unemployment rate

19.9 11.3 14.2 20.7 18.7 12.4 18.0 11.6 15.4

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,444 17,930 17,784 17,444 17,593 17,769 17,896 17,930 17,784

Civilian labor force

11,371 11,495 11,479 11,358 11,490 11,548 11,436 11,559 11,472

Participation rate

65.2 64.1 64.5 65.1 65.3 65.0 63.9 64.5 64.5

Employed

10,982 11,146 11,084 10,970 11,134 11,144 11,084 11,223 11,081

Employment-population ratio

63.0 62.2 62.3 62.9 63.3 62.7 61.9 62.6 62.3

Unemployed

389 349 395 387 356 404 353 336 390

Unemployment rate

3.4 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.1 2.9 3.4

Not in labor force

6,073 6,435 6,305 6,087 6,103 6,221 6,459 6,372 6,312

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

47,103 48,364 48,467 47,103 47,877 47,974 48,068 48,364 48,467

Civilian labor force

31,507 32,260 32,513 31,516 32,056 32,101 32,081 32,318 32,499

Participation rate

66.9 66.7 67.1 66.9 67.0 66.9 66.7 66.8 67.1

Employed

29,640 30,389 30,732 29,813 30,525 30,636 30,480 30,700 30,883

Employment-population ratio

62.9 62.8 63.4 63.3 63.8 63.9 63.4 63.5 63.7

Unemployed

1,866 1,871 1,781 1,703 1,531 1,465 1,602 1,618 1,616

Unemployment rate

5.9 5.8 5.5 5.4 4.8 4.6 5.0 5.0 5.0

Not in labor force

15,597 16,104 15,953 15,587 15,822 15,873 15,986 16,046 15,967

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

16,951 17,372 17,434 16,941 17,128 17,267 17,261 17,372 17,415

Participation rate

79.2 79.5 79.6 79.1 78.7 79.2 79.1 79.5 79.5

Employed

15,912 16,315 16,601 16,047 16,409 16,537 16,438 16,519 16,720

Employment-population ratio

74.3 74.6 75.8 74.9 75.4 75.9 75.3 75.6 76.3

Unemployed

1,038 1,057 832 894 719 729 824 852 695

Unemployment rate

6.1 6.1 4.8 5.3 4.2 4.2 4.8 4.9 4.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,120 13,329 13,575 13,099 13,265 13,260 13,346 13,336 13,535

Participation rate

61.5 60.7 61.7 61.3 61.1 61.0 61.3 60.7 61.5

Employed

12,465 12,697 12,862 12,474 12,727 12,737 12,746 12,759 12,860

Employment-population ratio

58.4 57.8 58.4 58.4 58.6 58.6 58.5 58.1 58.4

Unemployed

655 632 713 624 537 523 601 577 675

Unemployment rate

5.0 4.7 5.3 4.8 4.1 3.9 4.5 4.3 5.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,436 1,558 1,504 1,477 1,664 1,574 1,474 1,610 1,549

Participation rate

33.1 34.3 33.1 34.0 37.6 35.5 33.2 35.5 34.0

Employed

1,262 1,377 1,269 1,293 1,389 1,361 1,296 1,422 1,304

Employment-population ratio

29.1 30.3 27.9 29.8 31.4 30.7 29.2 31.3 28.6

Unemployed

173 181 235 184 275 213 177 188 246

Unemployment rate

12.1 11.6 15.6 12.5 16.5 13.5 12.0 11.7 15.9

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

8,850 9,281 8,887 9,149 9,312 9,492 9,384 9,271 9,192

Participation rate

46.7 47.1 46.7 48.3 48.0 48.3 47.5 47.1 48.3

Employed

8,198 8,562 8,204 8,615 8,771 8,891 8,819 8,715 8,626

Employment-population ratio

43.2 43.5 43.1 45.4 45.2 45.2 44.6 44.3 45.4

Unemployed

652 719 683 534 542 601 564 556 565

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.7 7.7 5.8 5.8 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.1

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

35,852 35,853 36,541 35,860 35,637 35,790 35,748 35,927 36,474

Participation rate

56.0 56.9 57.1 56.0 56.9 57.3 57.1 57.0 57.0

Employed

34,441 34,116 34,866 34,576 34,195 34,327 34,247 34,385 34,948

Employment-population ratio

53.8 54.2 54.5 54.0 54.6 55.0 54.7 54.6 54.7

Unemployed

1,411 1,736 1,675 1,285 1,442 1,463 1,501 1,543 1,526

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.8 4.6 3.6 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.2

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

35,869 36,167 36,297 35,964 35,814 35,874 35,737 36,205 36,322

Participation rate

63.4 62.6 63.4 63.6 62.2 62.1 62.4 62.6 63.5

Employed

34,594 34,922 35,049 34,794 34,691 34,866 34,623 35,020 35,178

Employment-population ratio

61.2 60.4 61.2 61.5 60.3 60.4 60.4 60.6 61.5

Unemployed

1,275 1,245 1,248 1,170 1,123 1,009 1,114 1,184 1,144

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.1

Bachelor’s degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

63,848 64,039 64,479 63,271 64,504 64,452 64,297 64,195 63,965

Participation rate

73.1 72.6 72.7 72.5 72.8 72.7 72.3 72.7 72.1

Employed

62,530 62,621 63,013 61,973 63,133 63,091 62,933 62,836 62,527

Employment-population ratio

71.6 71.0 71.1 71.0 71.2 71.2 70.8 71.2 70.5

Unemployed

1,318 1,418 1,466 1,297 1,371 1,360 1,364 1,359 1,438

Unemployment rate

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals for those 25 years and over because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

18,002 17,680 15,967 15,635 2,035 2,045

Civilian labor force

8,683 8,615 7,600 7,419 1,083 1,196

Participation rate

48.2 48.7 47.6 47.5 53.2 58.5

Employed

8,462 8,369 7,393 7,199 1,069 1,170

Employment-population ratio

47.0 47.3 46.3 46.0 52.5 57.2

Unemployed

221 247 207 220 14 26

Unemployment rate

2.5 2.9 2.7 3.0 1.3 2.2

Not in labor force

9,319 9,065 8,367 8,216 952 849

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,989 5,266 4,070 4,309 919 957

Civilian labor force

4,004 4,195 3,381 3,484 623 711

Participation rate

80.3 79.7 83.1 80.9 67.8 74.3

Employed

3,894 4,090 3,283 3,395 611 695

Employment-population ratio

78.0 77.7 80.7 78.8 66.5 72.7

Unemployed

111 105 98 89 12 16

Unemployment rate

2.8 2.5 2.9 2.6 2.0 2.2

Not in labor force

985 1,071 689 825 295 246

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,947 2,820 2,510 2,389 437 431

Civilian labor force

2,148 2,022 1,831 1,737 317 286

Participation rate

72.9 71.7 72.9 72.7 72.5 66.3

Employed

2,098 1,967 1,781 1,681 317 286

Employment-population ratio

71.2 69.8 70.9 70.4 72.5 66.3

Unemployed

50 55 50 55 0 0

Unemployment rate

2.3 2.7 2.7 3.2 0.0 0.0

Not in labor force

799 797 679 652 120 145

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

6,077 5,756 5,820 5,513 257 243

Civilian labor force

820 695 815 672 6 23

Participation rate

13.5 12.1 14.0 12.2 2.1 9.6

Employed

809 660 803 637 6 23

Employment-population ratio

13.3 11.5 13.8 11.6 2.1 9.6

Unemployed

11 35 11 35 0 0

Unemployment rate

1.4 5.0 1.4 5.2

Not in labor force

5,257 5,061 5,005 4,841 251 220

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,989 3,838 3,567 3,424 422 414

Civilian labor force

1,711 1,703 1,574 1,527 137 176

Participation rate

42.9 44.4 44.1 44.6 32.5 42.5

Employed

1,662 1,651 1,526 1,486 136 165

Employment-population ratio

41.7 43.0 42.8 43.4 32.2 39.9

Unemployed

49 52 47 41 1 11

Unemployment rate

2.8 3.0 3.0 2.7 0.9 6.0

Not in labor force

2,278 2,135 1,993 1,897 285 238

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

238,871 240,832 109,483 110,303 129,389 130,529

Civilian labor force

155,307 156,583 79,747 79,939 75,560 76,644

Participation rate

65.0 65.0 72.8 72.5 58.4 58.7

Employed

149,259 150,113 76,361 76,364 72,898 73,749

Employment-population ratio

62.5 62.3 69.7 69.2 56.3 56.5

Unemployed

6,049 6,470 3,387 3,574 2,662 2,896

Unemployment rate

3.9 4.1 4.2 4.5 3.5 3.8

Not in labor force

83,564 84,249 29,735 30,364 53,829 53,884

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000).

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,611 33,864 233,501 233,847

Civilian labor force

7,786 8,270 158,392 159,015

Participation rate

23.9 24.4 67.8 68.0

Employed

7,214 7,636 152,498 152,679

Employment-population ratio

22.1 22.5 65.3 65.3

Unemployed

572 634 5,894 6,336

Unemployment rate

7.3 7.7 3.7 4.0

Not in labor force

24,825 25,594 75,109 74,832

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,256 3,349 79,093 78,756

Participation rate

41.9 40.2 82.2 82.6

Employed

3,007 3,068 75,778 75,356

Employment-population ratio

38.7 36.8 78.7 79.1

Unemployed

249 281 3,316 3,401

Unemployment rate

7.6 8.4 4.2 4.3

Not in labor force

4,516 4,981 17,162 16,550

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

3,245 3,407 69,610 70,334

Participation rate

38.6 39.9 72.4 72.9

Employed

2,966 3,126 67,277 67,693

Employment-population ratio

35.3 36.6 70.0 70.2

Unemployed

279 281 2,333 2,642

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.2 3.4 3.8

Not in labor force

5,164 5,127 26,508 26,153

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,285 1,514 9,688 9,924

Participation rate

7.8 8.9 23.6 23.6

Employed

1,241 1,442 9,443 9,630

Employment-population ratio

7.6 8.5 23.0 22.9

Unemployed

44 73 245 294

Unemployment rate

3.4 4.8 2.5 3.0

Not in labor force

15,146 15,486 31,439 32,128

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

46,470 48,810 22,743 24,041 23,727 24,769

Civilian labor force

30,827 32,521 17,464 18,499 13,363 14,022

Participation rate

66.3 66.6 76.8 77.0 56.3 56.6

Employed

29,518 31,002 16,705 17,704 12,813 13,299

Employment-population ratio

63.5 63.5 73.4 73.6 54.0 53.7

Unemployed

1,309 1,519 759 796 550 723

Unemployment rate

4.2 4.7 4.3 4.3 4.1 5.2

Not in labor force

15,643 16,289 5,279 5,541 10,364 10,747

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

219,642 218,901 107,328 106,479 112,314 112,422

Civilian labor force

135,351 134,764 70,919 69,800 64,433 64,964

Participation rate

61.6 61.6 66.1 65.6 57.4 57.8

Employed

130,194 129,313 67,961 66,688 62,234 62,625

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.1 63.3 62.6 55.4 55.7

Unemployed

5,157 5,451 2,958 3,112 2,199 2,339

Unemployment rate

3.8 4.0 4.2 4.5 3.4 3.6

Not in labor force

84,291 84,137 36,410 36,679 47,881 47,458

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,251 2,074 2,111 2,343 2,201 2,262 2,205 2,184 2,201

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,456 1,413 1,454 1,526 1,468 1,549 1,520 1,489 1,524

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

755 651 621 779 707 701 680 687 649

Unpaid family workers

40 10 35

Nonagricultural industries

157,461 157,575 158,205 157,797 159,166 159,578 158,993 158,735 158,601

Wage and salary workers(1)

148,238 148,684 148,897 148,613 150,170 150,505 149,702 149,741 149,321

Government

21,951 21,858 21,517 21,501 21,664 21,878 21,700 21,490 21,142

Private industries

126,287 126,826 127,380 127,130 128,454 128,612 128,086 128,407 128,256

Private households

592 773 746

Other industries

125,696 126,053 126,634 126,411 127,800 127,889 127,414 127,521 127,392

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,173 8,841 9,261 9,304 8,957 9,014 9,335 9,087 9,377

Unpaid family workers

50 50 47

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,285 4,874 4,592 4,070 4,284 3,994 4,211 4,422 4,376

Slack work or business conditions

3,079 3,427 3,098 2,842 2,985 2,790 2,960 2,994 2,863

Could only find part-time work

868 1,046 1,139 866 1,000 934 964 1,026 1,104

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,494 22,238 23,043 21,780 21,576 21,879 22,458 22,156 22,309

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

4,146 4,803 4,479 3,970 4,205 3,931 4,138 4,371 4,300

Slack work or business conditions

2,975 3,390 3,013 2,763 2,941 2,735 2,913 2,959 2,803

Could only find part-time work

850 1,038 1,130 850 992 923 953 1,018 1,098

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

22,074 21,878 22,677 21,375 21,214 21,444 22,060 21,793 21,951

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

– Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

159,713 159,650 160,315 160,301 161,280 161,866 161,183 161,152 160,968

16 to 19 years

5,311 5,256 5,214 5,704 5,688 5,733 5,638 5,704 5,608

16 to 17 years

1,992 2,071 1,833 2,190 2,161 2,235 2,194 2,292 2,035

18 to 19 years

3,319 3,186 3,381 3,531 3,518 3,514 3,446 3,428 3,595

20 years and over

154,401 154,394 155,101 154,597 155,592 156,133 155,545 155,448 155,360

20 to 24 years

14,638 14,173 13,969 14,817 14,565 14,787 14,756 14,562 14,192

25 years and over

139,763 140,221 141,131 139,971 140,887 141,194 140,617 140,972 141,300

25 to 54 years

102,681 102,991 103,564 102,866 103,311 103,451 103,161 103,489 103,717

25 to 34 years

35,751 35,424 35,631 35,777 35,799 35,779 35,859 35,700 35,672

35 to 44 years

35,179 35,703 36,077 35,265 35,486 35,680 35,546 35,818 36,117

45 to 54 years

31,751 31,864 31,856 31,824 32,026 31,992 31,757 31,970 31,928

55 years and over

37,082 37,230 37,567 37,105 37,576 37,742 37,455 37,484 37,582

Men, 16 years and over

84,666 83,959 84,391 85,185 85,327 85,981 85,794 85,034 84,993

16 to 19 years

2,618 2,475 2,589 2,845 2,801 2,897 2,836 2,730 2,815

16 to 17 years

912 934 828 1,015 1,067 1,071 1,033 1,063 939

18 to 19 years

1,706 1,541 1,761 1,844 1,730 1,846 1,807 1,679 1,900

20 years and over

82,048 81,485 81,802 82,340 82,526 83,084 82,958 82,304 82,178

20 to 24 years

7,355 7,093 6,951 7,483 7,262 7,446 7,432 7,320 7,107

25 years and over

74,693 74,391 74,851 75,068 75,118 75,514 75,397 75,093 75,239

25 to 54 years

54,765 54,500 54,836 55,051 55,012 55,262 55,178 55,008 55,126

25 to 34 years

19,087 18,720 18,868 19,149 18,975 19,088 19,104 18,948 18,945

35 to 44 years

18,859 18,949 19,162 18,978 19,043 19,107 19,108 19,109 19,266

45 to 54 years

16,819 16,830 16,806 16,924 16,994 17,067 16,966 16,951 16,916

55 years and over

19,928 19,892 20,016 20,017 20,106 20,252 20,219 20,085 20,112

Women, 16 years and over

75,047 75,691 75,924 75,116 75,953 75,885 75,389 76,118 75,975

16 to 19 years

2,693 2,781 2,625 2,859 2,887 2,836 2,802 2,974 2,793

16 to 17 years

1,080 1,137 1,005 1,174 1,094 1,164 1,162 1,229 1,096

18 to 19 years

1,614 1,645 1,620 1,687 1,788 1,668 1,639 1,749 1,694

20 years and over

72,354 72,909 73,299 72,257 73,066 73,049 72,587 73,144 73,182

20 to 24 years

7,283 7,080 7,019 7,334 7,303 7,342 7,324 7,241 7,085

25 years and over

65,070 65,829 66,280 64,903 65,769 65,679 65,220 65,879 66,061

25 to 54 years

47,916 48,491 48,728 47,815 48,298 48,189 47,983 48,480 48,591

25 to 34 years

16,664 16,704 16,763 16,628 16,823 16,691 16,755 16,752 16,727

35 to 44 years

16,320 16,754 16,916 16,287 16,443 16,573 16,438 16,709 16,851

45 to 54 years

14,932 15,033 15,050 14,900 15,032 14,926 14,791 15,019 15,013

55 years and over

17,154 17,338 17,552 17,088 17,471 17,490 17,237 17,399 17,470

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

46,414 45,519 45,452 46,185 46,059 46,344 46,392 45,672 45,387

Married women, spouse present(1)

37,152 37,034 37,035 36,931 37,018 36,887 36,790 37,033 36,822

Women who maintain families(2)

9,696 9,897 9,955

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

132,173 131,549 131,815 133,230 134,502 134,727 133,196 133,133 132,946

Part-time workers(4)

27,540 28,101 28,501 27,020 26,702 27,032 27,794 27,890 27,941

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

8,041 8,133 8,411 7,883 8,360 8,343 8,565 8,272 8,259

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.1 5.2 4.9 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.1

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

6,435 6,656 6,565

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,928 9,492 9,883 10,083 9,664 9,715 10,014 9,774 10,026

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(4) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

– Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

5,962 6,124 6,458 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9

16 to 19 years

711 679 803 11.1 13.1 11.4 11.9 10.6 12.5

16 to 17 years

218 254 290 9.0 14.7 11.4 13.1 10.0 12.5

18 to 19 years

482 415 499 12.0 12.5 11.5 11.2 10.8 12.2

20 years and over

5,251 5,445 5,655 3.3 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5

20 to 24 years

1,103 921 1,097 6.9 7.0 6.6 6.4 5.9 7.2

25 years and over

4,258 4,602 4,655 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

25 to 54 years

3,256 3,480 3,544 3.1 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3

25 to 34 years

1,459 1,467 1,607 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.3

35 to 44 years

938 1,110 1,078 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9

45 to 54 years

858 903 859 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6

55 years and over

973 1,110 1,081 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8

Men, 16 years and over

3,203 3,473 3,398 3.6 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8

16 to 19 years

398 413 396 12.3 14.6 12.2 12.5 13.2 12.3

16 to 17 years

130 190 124 11.4 16.3 13.3 15.2 15.1 11.6

18 to 19 years

271 230 272 12.8 14.2 11.7 11.3 12.1 12.5

20 years and over

2,805 3,060 3,002 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.5

20 to 24 years

646 551 610 8.0 7.8 7.1 6.4 7.0 7.9

25 years and over

2,258 2,583 2,474 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2

25 to 54 years

1,747 1,913 1,896 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3

25 to 34 years

782 784 840 3.9 4.6 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.2

35 to 44 years

532 652 597 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.0

45 to 54 years

434 477 459 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6

55 years and over

511 669 577 2.5 2.7 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.8

Women, 16 years and over

2,759 2,650 3,060 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.9

16 to 19 years

313 266 408 9.9 11.7 10.6 11.1 8.2 12.7

16 to 17 years

88 65 166 6.9 13.1 9.5 11.2 5.0 13.1

18 to 19 years

210 185 227 11.1 10.8 11.2 11.1 9.6 11.8

20 years and over

2,446 2,385 2,653 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.5

20 to 24 years

457 369 487 5.9 6.2 6.1 6.4 4.9 6.4

25 years and over

2,000 2,019 2,182 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.2

25 to 54 years

1,509 1,567 1,648 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3

25 to 34 years

678 683 767 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.9 3.9 4.4

35 to 44 years

407 458 481 2.4 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.8

45 to 54 years

425 426 401 2.8 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.6

55 years and over

479 441 520 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present(1)

877 999 879 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.9

Married women, spouse present(1)

782 773 766 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.0

Women who maintain families(2)

514 567 583 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.7 5.4 5.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(3)

4,886 4,936 5,356 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.9

Part-time workers(4)

1,128 1,212 1,131 4.0 4.6 3.9 3.8 4.2 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to persons in both opposite-sex and same-sex married couples. Prior to January 2020, referred to persons in opposite-sex married couples only.
(2) Data are not seasonally adjusted. Beginning with data for January 2020, refers to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not a spouse of either sex. Prior to January 2020, referred to female householders residing with one or more family members, but not an opposite-sex spouse.
(3) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(4) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3,249 3,680 3,691 2,766 3,120 3,058 3,058 3,028 3,216

On temporary layoff

1,117 1,345 1,123 807 904 889 917 876 827

Not on temporary layoff

2,132 2,335 2,568 1,959 2,217 2,169 2,140 2,151 2,389

Permanent job losers

1,482 1,621 1,812 1,403 1,636 1,589 1,543 1,556 1,730

Persons who completed temporary jobs

650 713 756 556 581 580 597 595 659

Job leavers

892 791 712 888 801 821 833 794 711

Reentrants

1,862 1,851 1,991 1,844 1,869 1,771 1,741 1,834 1,946

New entrants

462 456 576 521 603 582 609 550 611

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

50.3 54.3 53.0 46.0 48.8 49.1 49.0 48.8 49.6

On temporary layoff

17.3 19.8 16.1 13.4 14.1 14.3 14.7 14.1 12.8

Not on temporary layoff

33.0 34.4 36.8 32.5 34.7 34.8 34.3 34.7 36.8

Job leavers

13.8 11.7 10.2 14.8 12.5 13.2 13.4 12.8 11.0

Reentrants

28.8 27.3 28.6 30.6 29.2 28.4 27.9 29.5 30.0

New entrants

7.1 6.7 8.3 8.7 9.4 9.3 9.8 8.9 9.4

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

2.0 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Reentrants

1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.2

New entrants

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,130 2,559 2,198 2,294 2,269 2,069 2,191 2,140 2,326

5 to 14 weeks

2,247 2,022 2,370 1,838 1,836 2,060 1,791 1,848 1,933

15 weeks and over

2,089 2,196 2,402 1,863 2,370 2,150 2,350 2,144 2,176

15 to 26 weeks

957 882 1,113 812 1,079 931 1,104 867 974

27 weeks and over

1,131 1,314 1,288 1,051 1,291 1,220 1,245 1,277 1,203

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

19.1 19.5 20.6 19.3 21.6 19.5 22.3 20.8 20.9

Median duration, in weeks

8.9 8.3 9.2 8.9 8.6 9.0 9.7 9.6 9.3

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

32.9 37.8 31.5 38.3 35.0 33.0 34.6 34.9 36.1

5 to 14 weeks

34.7 29.8 34.0 30.7 28.4 32.8 28.3 30.1 30.0

15 weeks and over

32.3 32.4 34.5 31.1 36.6 34.2 37.1 35.0 33.8

15 to 26 weeks

14.8 13.0 16.0 13.6 16.7 14.8 17.4 14.1 15.1

27 weeks and over

17.5 19.4 18.5 17.5 19.9 19.4 19.7 20.8 18.7

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to total unemployed in table A-1 because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

159,713 160,315 6,465 6,970 3.9 4.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

69,986 70,217 1,406 1,580 2.0 2.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

30,137 29,861 632 731 2.1 2.4

Professional and related occupations

39,848 40,355 774 849 1.9 2.1

Service occupations

25,292 25,843 1,295 1,395 4.9 5.1

Sales and office occupations

30,220 29,884 1,327 1,368 4.2 4.4

Sales and related occupations

14,185 14,364 596 704 4.0 4.7

Office and administrative support occupations

16,035 15,520 731 664 4.4 4.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

14,190 14,287 902 940 6.0 6.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

946 981 85 119 8.2 10.8

Construction and extraction occupations

8,474 8,400 713 665 7.8 7.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,769 4,905 104 156 2.1 3.1

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

20,025 20,085 1,073 1,101 5.1 5.2

Production occupations

8,380 8,188 421 382 4.8 4.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,645 11,896 651 718 5.3 5.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2018 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2020 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

Total, 16 years and over(1)

6,465 6,970 3.9 4.2

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

5,218 5,522 4.0 4.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

17 24 3.0 4.2

Construction

708 711 6.6 7.0

Manufacturing

464 450 3.0 3.0

Durable goods

268 270 2.6 2.8

Nondurable goods

196 180 3.6 3.4

Wholesale and retail trade

1,039 926 5.4 4.7

Transportation and utilities

377 424 4.5 5.2

Information

87 121 3.2 4.3

Financial activities

227 242 2.2 2.4

Professional and business services

801 962 4.2 5.1

Education and health services

611 587 2.4 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

693 810 5.2 5.9

Other services

194 265 3.1 3.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

105 140 7.1 9.0

Government workers

374 373 1.7 1.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

306 359 3.0 3.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2020 data, industries reflect the introduction of the 2017 Census industry classification system into the Current Population Survey. This industry classification system is derived from the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). No historical data have been revised.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Oct.
2023
Nov.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024
Feb.
2024

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

1.3 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

2.0 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

3.9 4.1 4.2 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

4.1 4.3 4.4 3.8 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.1

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

4.7 5.1 5.1 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

7.3 8.0 7.8 6.8 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024
Feb.
2023
Feb.
2024

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

99,934 100,426 41,689 42,221 58,245 58,205

Persons who currently want a job

4,987 5,546 2,514 2,621 2,472 2,925

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

1,420 1,559 771 792 649 767

Discouraged workers(2)

361 425 202 245 159 180

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,059 1,135 569 548 490 587

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

8,041 8,411 4,014 3,986 4,027 4,425

Percent of total employed

5.0 5.2 4.7 4.7 5.4 5.8

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,415 4,830 2,379 2,513 2,036 2,317

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,051 2,210 824 766 1,227 1,444

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

388 386 236 238 152 148

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,142 934 562 438 580 495

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Change from:
Jan.2024 – Feb.2024(P)

Total nonfarm

153,817 158,269 155,414 156,555 155,060 157,304 157,533 157,808 275

Total private

131,013 134,901 132,406 133,112 132,509 134,228 134,405 134,628 223

Goods-producing

21,159 21,684 21,312 21,399 21,520 21,723 21,747 21,766 19

Mining and logging

624 642 628 631 633 643 640 640 0

Logging

45.0 42.7 41.8 41.9 44.6 42.5 41.8 41.9 0.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

579.3 599.1 586.5 589.1 588.4 600.2 598.0 598.1 0.1

Oil and gas extraction

115.3 118.8 119.0 118.1 116.3 118.1 119.7 119.1 -0.6

Mining (except oil and gas)

182.5 187.0 183.7 184.5 187.6 188.5 189.2 189.4 0.2

Coal mining

42.5 42.6 42.7 43.0 42.6 42.8 42.9 43.1 0.2

Metal ore mining

43.2 43.9 43.3 43.4 43.3 44.0 43.6 43.6 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

96.8 100.5 97.7 98.1 101.7 101.7 102.7 102.7 0.0

Support activities for mining

281.5 293.3 283.8 286.5 284.5 293.6 289.1 289.6 0.5

Construction

7,642 8,051 7,802 7,855 7,947 8,120 8,139 8,162 23

Construction of buildings

1,760.0 1,834.7 1,802.9 1,809.3 1,799.8 1,837.1 1,844.2 1,848.3 4.1

Residential building construction

906.9 933.2 913.8 916.2 926.8 933.6 936.2 936.0 -0.2

Nonresidential building construction

853.1 901.5 889.1 893.1 873.0 903.5 908.0 912.3 4.3

Heavy and civil engineering construction

1,015.3 1,097.9 1,029.7 1,057.6 1,104.6 1,134.7 1,133.4 1,145.9 12.5

Specialty trade contractors

4,866.8 5,118.5 4,969.8 4,987.9 5,042.1 5,148.2 5,161.2 5,167.6 6.4

Residential specialty trade contractors

2,271.9 2,376.5 2,305.1 2,314.2 2,347.3 2,394.0 2,395.9 2,394.9 -1.0

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,594.9 2,742.0 2,664.7 2,673.7 2,694.8 2,754.2 2,765.3 2,772.7 7.4

Manufacturing

12,893 12,991 12,882 12,913 12,940 12,960 12,968 12,964 -4

Durable goods

8,055 8,172 8,106 8,126 8,075 8,148 8,147 8,149 2

Wood product manufacturing

419.7 414.3 411.2 413.7 421.6 414.3 414.0 415.6 1.6

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

414.4 425.6 411.9 412.0 422.4 424.3 421.8 420.9 -0.9

Primary metal manufacturing

370.8 374.3 370.8 371.2 371.1 372.4 372.3 371.6 -0.7

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

1,446.9 1,465.4 1,462.8 1,470.5 1,449.8 1,464.3 1,468.5 1,472.9 4.4

Machinery manufacturing

1,126.5 1,142.7 1,140.0 1,139.5 1,127.3 1,142.0 1,141.7 1,140.4 -1.3

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

1,106.1 1,109.7 1,102.4 1,102.2 1,109.7 1,107.9 1,107.6 1,105.9 -1.7

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

163.1 164.2 162.8 160.6 163.7 163.2 162.6 161.3 -1.3

Communications equipment manufacturing

84.8 87.0 86.2 86.2 85.1 86.9 86.7 86.6 -0.1

Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing

398.8 392.8 391.1 391.0 400.5 392.8 393.3 392.6 -0.7

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

428.6 435.2 432.0 434.1 429.1 434.8 434.1 434.7 0.6

Manufacturing and reproducing magnetic and optical media and audio and video equipment manufacturing

30.8 30.5 30.3 30.3 31.3 30.2 30.8 30.7 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

414.0 414.1 410.2 412.3 415.9 413.8 411.6 414.1 2.5

Transportation equipment manufacturing(1)

1,763.1 1,846.3 1,830.1 1,834.1 1,761.3 1,831.3 1,836.0 1,834.1 -1.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

1,026.7 1,076.3 1,061.4 1,064.7 1,026.1 1,063.1 1,065.5 1,065.1 -0.4

Furniture and related product manufacturing

363.9 351.2 344.8 345.9 364.4 349.7 346.8 346.7 -0.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

629.5 628.4 622.0 624.7 631.6 627.5 626.3 626.9 0.6

Nondurable goods

4,838 4,819 4,776 4,787 4,865 4,812 4,821 4,815 -6

Food manufacturing

1,718.7 1,738.4 1,718.5 1,722.4 1,725.6 1,729.0 1,730.8 1,729.1 -1.7

Textile mills

91.3 89.3 88.3 89.2 92.3 89.3 89.3 90.0 0.7

Textile product mills

102.5 95.6 95.0 94.7 102.7 95.3 95.2 94.9 -0.3

Apparel manufacturing

90.6 87.5 86.4 85.3 91.2 87.6 87.3 86.3 -1.0

Paper manufacturing

361.9 356.0 351.1 350.8 361.0 353.6 351.2 350.3 -0.9

Printing and related support activities

373.7 366.2 364.4 363.4 376.2 364.1 367.4 365.7 -1.7

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

103.6 106.8 105.7 107.4 107.6 109.2 110.5 111.1 0.6

Chemical manufacturing

904.6 896.7 892.7 894.7 903.1 895.0 895.6 893.5 -2.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

742.9 728.2 725.4 727.1 744.6 727.1 729.8 729.5 -0.3

Beverage, tobacco, and leather and allied product manufacturing

348.0 354.3 348.4 351.8 360.9 361.4 363.6 364.7 1.1

Private service-providing

109,854 113,217 111,094 111,713 110,989 112,505 112,658 112,862 204

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28,602 29,648 28,769 28,663 28,851 28,867 28,852 28,892 40

Wholesale trade

6,055.8 6,178.1 6,113.5 6,121.7 6,087.0 6,159.5 6,156.2 6,155.0 -1.2

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

3,365.1 3,435.2 3,410.5 3,414.8 3,373.1 3,425.3 3,425.5 3,423.8 -1.7

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

2,178.1 2,224.6 2,194.9 2,197.6 2,199.7 2,218.9 2,219.3 2,219.6 0.3

Wholesale trade agents and brokers

512.6 518.3 508.1 509.3 514.2 515.3 511.4 511.6 0.2

Retail trade

15,431.6 16,048.2 15,574.3 15,488.6 15,606.8 15,602.7 15,617.9 15,636.6 18.7

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

2,011.8 2,067.8 2,049.1 2,055.1 2,027.2 2,071.8 2,070.9 2,071.3 0.4

Automobile dealers

1,264.9 1,294.1 1,286.5 1,287.3 1,267.9 1,292.9 1,293.7 1,290.6 -3.1

Other motor vehicle dealers

171.7 168.3 163.8 165.0 179.0 174.8 173.9 172.9 -1.0

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire retailers

575.2 605.4 598.8 602.8 580.2 604.2 603.2 607.7 4.5

Building material and garden equipment and supplies dealers

1,381.9 1,393.3 1,338.2 1,338.9 1,420.1 1,399.6 1,385.1 1,378.8 -6.3

Food and beverage retailers

3,229.1 3,285.1 3,238.8 3,246.0 3,238.7 3,247.4 3,250.2 3,253.1 2.9

Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers

867.7 866.3 834.6 827.7 865.8 829.6 828.1 825.4 -2.7

Furniture and home furnishings retailers

440.5 445.2 430.6 428.5 438.2 426.2 426.2 425.8 -0.4

Electronics and appliance retailers

427.2 421.1 404.0 399.2 427.6 403.5 401.9 399.7 -2.2

General merchandise retailers

3,172.9 3,421.9 3,247.7 3,214.4 3,217.2 3,209.1 3,226.7 3,243.9 17.2

Department stores

936.6 1,052.9 965.1 940.4 963.9 938.4 950.2 960.7 10.5

Warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers

2,236.3 2,369.0 2,282.6 2,274.0 2,253.4 2,270.7 2,276.4 2,283.2 6.8

Health and personal care retailers

1,101.8 1,122.1 1,105.0 1,102.8 1,099.7 1,093.2 1,094.5 1,100.5 6.0

Gasoline stations and fuel dealers

1,039.1 1,070.3 1,063.6 1,063.5 1,050.9 1,071.0 1,072.3 1,074.3 2.0

Clothing, clothing accessories, shoe, and jewelry retailers

1,124.2 1,237.7 1,167.0 1,124.0 1,156.0 1,145.8 1,148.8 1,150.9 2.1

Sporting goods, hobby, musical instrument, book, and miscellaneous retailers

1,503.1 1,583.7 1,530.3 1,516.2 1,531.2 1,535.2 1,541.3 1,538.4 -2.9

Transportation and warehousing

6,549.3 6,837.2 6,497.7 6,467.3 6,588.0 6,520.6 6,491.7 6,511.4 19.7

Air transportation

531.7 568.6 564.5 568.5 536.0 569.9 569.5 573.4 3.9

Rail transportation

151.7 152.7 153.0 153.0 151.4 153.1 153.0 152.8 -0.2

Water transportation

64.7 69.4 69.6 69.7 67.4 70.9 72.3 72.7 0.4

Truck transportation

1,553.5 1,557.8 1,529.6 1,524.5 1,579.5 1,551.8 1,551.5 1,551.2 -0.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

439.9 447.5 438.7 445.9 426.3 431.4 430.2 432.3 2.1

Pipeline transportation

51.7 51.7 52.2 52.5 51.8 51.8 52.4 52.5 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

22.8 29.0 25.2 26.2 29.5 33.0 31.6 32.2 0.6

Support activities for transportation

816.9 841.9 832.0 834.6 819.0 831.9 833.7 836.3 2.6

Couriers and messengers

1,062.8 1,301.2 1,056.8 1,025.9 1,077.6 1,059.9 1,032.0 1,049.3 17.3

Warehousing and storage

1,853.6 1,817.4 1,776.1 1,766.5 1,849.5 1,766.9 1,765.5 1,758.7 -6.8

Utilities

565.3 584.9 583.5 585.7 569.1 583.8 585.7 588.9 3.2

Information

3,028 3,028 2,973 2,996 3,049 3,012 3,018 3,020 2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

399.3 439.5 409.7 428.0 416.4 431.3 440.0 443.2 3.2

Publishing industries

949.4 935.5 920.5 922.2 954.0 931.7 928.1 930.3 2.2

Broadcasting and content providers

354.0 345.7 340.8 341.6 353.4 343.0 343.2 341.4 -1.8

Telecommunications

658.1 634.8 631.5 633.0 656.8 634.8 634.2 632.0 -2.2

Computing infrastructure providers, data processing, web hosting, and related services

483.4 495.5 493.2 493.7 483.2 493.6 494.0 494.3 0.3

Web search portals, libraries, archives, and other information services

184.1 177.3 177.3 177.6 185.2 177.6 178.7 178.9 0.2

Financial activities

9,097 9,265 9,178 9,180 9,146 9,233 9,232 9,233 1

Finance and insurance

6,690.0 6,756.9 6,717.8 6,718.8 6,699.4 6,737.6 6,733.7 6,730.9 -2.8

Monetary authorities-central bank

22.5 22.5 22.5 22.5 22.6 22.5 22.6 22.5 -0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities

2,645.5 2,607.6 2,597.3 2,590.8 2,643.2 2,603.8 2,597.9 2,589.0 -8.9

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,804.8 1,785.9 1,782.9 1,781.4 1,802.5 1,785.3 1,782.6 1,779.1 -3.5

Commercial banking

1,402.7 1,377.0 1,374.1 1,373.6 1,399.5 1,377.7 1,374.2 1,370.5 -3.7

Nondepository credit intermediation

541.1 534.2 529.9 525.6 542.6 531.4 530.4 526.7 -3.7

Activities related to credit intermediation

299.6 287.5 284.5 283.8 298.1 287.2 284.9 283.3 -1.6

Securities, commodity contracts, funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles, investments, and related activities

1,080.7 1,120.0 1,105.7 1,107.9 1,086.5 1,114.6 1,113.1 1,115.1 2.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,941.3 3,006.8 2,992.3 2,997.6 2,947.1 2,996.7 3,000.1 3,004.3 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2,407.2 2,508.0 2,460.2 2,461.1 2,447.0 2,495.7 2,498.4 2,501.9 3.5

Real estate

1,828.5 1,891.3 1,856.6 1,859.8 1,849.5 1,872.8 1,876.4 1,879.7 3.3

Rental and leasing services

556.2 593.2 580.7 578.3 574.7 599.7 598.6 598.8 0.2

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works)

22.5 23.5 22.9 23.0 22.8 23.2 23.4 23.4 0.0

Professional and business services

22,533 22,965 22,548 22,683 22,779 22,882 22,922 22,931 9

Professional, scientific, and technical services

10,731.5 10,984.7 10,912.6 10,982.9 10,712.2 10,934.4 10,957.0 10,972.7 15.7

Legal services

1,175.0 1,204.9 1,183.2 1,186.7 1,181.4 1,193.5 1,189.9 1,192.6 2.7

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,209.1 1,159.5 1,192.4 1,235.7 1,134.0 1,157.6 1,162.6 1,163.6 1.0

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,619.3 1,670.4 1,660.1 1,665.9 1,642.9 1,672.6 1,683.3 1,689.7 6.4

Specialized design services

150.7 156.3 153.8 154.1 152.7 154.6 156.0 156.0 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

2,477.6 2,531.2 2,525.4 2,531.8 2,479.4 2,524.9 2,530.1 2,534.3 4.2

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,835.6 1,910.9 1,874.2 1,876.4 1,842.0 1,890.8 1,887.2 1,886.3 -0.9

Scientific research and development services

916.7 949.2 946.3 952.4 921.1 950.5 955.0 957.1 2.1

Advertising, public relations, and related services

500.8 521.1 513.7 516.6 503.0 517.9 519.6 519.2 -0.4

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

846.7 881.2 863.5 863.3 855.8 872.0 873.2 873.8 0.6

Management of companies and enterprises

2,542.2 2,566.7 2,548.9 2,551.7 2,551.0 2,558.0 2,557.3 2,560.6 3.3

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

9,259.1 9,413.3 9,086.8 9,148.3 9,515.7 9,389.2 9,408.0 9,397.8 -10.2

Administrative and support services

8,770.9 8,906.7 8,583.9 8,642.7 9,020.6 8,881.1 8,896.3 8,885.2 -11.1

Office administrative services

605.0 630.2 627.8 628.2 610.9 632.2 634.5 635.4 0.9

Facilities support services

164.5 172.7 173.0 172.4 165.7 172.8 173.3 173.4 0.1

Employment services(1)

3,675.2 3,633.7 3,435.0 3,482.0 3,728.1 3,533.4 3,537.7 3,523.6 -14.1

Temporary help services

2,915.8 2,855.1 2,668.4 2,717.1 2,955.0 2,764.5 2,763.3 2,747.9 -15.4

Business support services

757.0 742.6 722.7 716.6 757.1 723.7 719.9 716.6 -3.3

Travel arrangement and reservation services

183.2 196.1 195.2 195.0 186.3 197.4 197.9 198.2 0.3

Investigation and security services

990.6 1,015.3 1,004.2 1,010.9 999.6 1,012.8 1,015.8 1,018.6 2.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

2,067.7 2,173.8 2,091.1 2,100.2 2,237.0 2,266.1 2,273.1 2,274.1 1.0

Other support services

327.7 342.3 334.9 337.4 335.8 342.6 344.1 345.3 1.2

Waste management and remediation services

488.2 506.6 502.9 505.6 495.1 508.1 511.7 512.6 0.9

Private education and health services

25,069 25,980 25,754 26,129 24,968 25,831 25,938 26,023 85

Private educational services

3,928.9 3,907.2 3,757.7 3,994.3 3,795.1 3,842.5 3,862.4 3,856.8 -5.6

Health care and social assistance

21,139.7 22,073.0 21,996.7 22,134.3 21,173.0 21,988.5 22,075.1 22,165.8 90.7

Health care(3)

16,673.5 17,368.6 17,298.4 17,396.3 16,703.3 17,293.3 17,357.3 17,424.0 66.7

Ambulatory health care services

8,321.3 8,684.6 8,623.9 8,676.7 8,335.7 8,635.0 8,661.8 8,689.8 28.0

Offices of physicians

2,868.5 3,008.4 2,987.3 2,997.1 2,874.7 2,985.1 2,995.4 3,004.1 8.7

Offices of dentists

1,016.9 1,037.1 1,025.8 1,026.3 1,021.2 1,031.6 1,029.4 1,031.3 1.9

Offices of other health practitioners

1,136.1 1,188.6 1,177.2 1,193.0 1,135.7 1,183.6 1,186.6 1,192.2 5.6

Outpatient care centers

1,057.9 1,082.9 1,079.3 1,076.5 1,054.7 1,075.9 1,077.6 1,074.1 -3.5

Medical and diagnostic laboratories

320.8 326.3 323.1 324.0 319.9 325.3 323.5 323.7 0.2

Home health care services

1,578.4 1,687.6 1,680.1 1,705.6 1,586.3 1,680.4 1,697.0 1,709.9 12.9

Other ambulatory health care services

342.7 353.7 351.1 354.2 343.1 353.1 352.4 354.5 2.1

Hospitals

5,260.3 5,453.3 5,456.6 5,486.7 5,267.9 5,439.9 5,466.3 5,494.0 27.7

Nursing and residential care facilities

3,091.9 3,230.7 3,217.9 3,232.9 3,099.7 3,218.4 3,229.2 3,240.2 11.0

Skilled nursing care facilities

1,386.8 1,449.2 1,445.1 1,451.0 1,391.7 1,444.4 1,449.3 1,455.7 6.4

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health, and substance abuse facilities

622.5 655.3 651.6 658.2 624.6 653.7 655.9 660.3 4.4

Continuing care retirement communities and assisted living facilities for the elderly

927.0 967.3 962.6 964.2 928.1 962.2 964.8 965.1 0.3

Other residential care facilities

155.6 158.9 158.6 159.5 155.4 158.2 159.2 159.1 -0.1

Social assistance

4,466.2 4,704.4 4,698.3 4,738.0 4,469.7 4,695.2 4,717.8 4,741.8 24.0

Individual and family services

2,952.3 3,130.0 3,134.1 3,161.3 2,955.4 3,127.7 3,144.1 3,163.1 19.0

Community food and housing, and emergency and other relief services

214.3 228.0 223.6 227.0 213.0 224.7 224.7 225.9 1.2

Vocational rehabilitation services

275.6 285.6 283.4 285.7 278.5 286.1 287.4 287.8 0.4

Child care services

1,024.0 1,060.8 1,057.2 1,064.0 1,022.8 1,056.8 1,061.6 1,065.0 3.4

Leisure and hospitality

15,801 16,485 16,078 16,243 16,412 16,816 16,824 16,882 58

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,222.3 2,447.8 2,375.9 2,412.7 2,442.9 2,599.7 2,621.0 2,634.3 13.3

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

490.1 593.2 553.7 576.0 537.5 613.6 620.3 624.6 4.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

154.1 170.2 163.7 163.8 167.6 175.7 177.2 177.7 0.5

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,578.1 1,684.4 1,658.5 1,672.9 1,737.8 1,810.4 1,823.5 1,832.0 8.5

Accommodation and food services

13,578.6 14,037.1 13,702.4 13,830.1 13,969.5 14,216.4 14,202.7 14,247.3 44.6

Accommodation

1,784.3 1,853.3 1,817.4 1,826.4 1,880.4 1,924.2 1,922.2 1,925.2 3.0

Food services and drinking places

11,794.3 12,183.8 11,885.0 12,003.7 12,089.1 12,292.2 12,280.5 12,322.1 41.6

Other services

5,724 5,846 5,794 5,819 5,784 5,864 5,872 5,881 9

Repair and maintenance

1,417.1 1,468.3 1,457.3 1,460.9 1,431.8 1,473.2 1,475.4 1,477.1 1.7

Personal and laundry services

1,506.6 1,543.4 1,523.3 1,529.7 1,523.4 1,542.5 1,546.2 1,548.3 2.1

Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations

2,800.1 2,834.3 2,813.8 2,828.3 2,829.2 2,848.3 2,850.3 2,856.0 5.7

Government

22,804 23,368 23,008 23,443 22,551 23,076 23,128 23,180 52

Federal

2,880 2,971 2,958 2,972 2,892 2,961 2,973 2,982 9

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,276.4 2,358.3 2,353.5 2,364.8 2,288.8 2,359.7 2,367.6 2,376.4 8.8

U.S. Postal Service

603.2 612.3 604.8 607.1 602.9 601.1 605.5 605.8 0.3

State government

5,344 5,494 5,330 5,557 5,229 5,404 5,423 5,428 5

State government education

2,665.9 2,737.8 2,570.5 2,791.9 2,537.1 2,637.0 2,648.0 2,649.8 1.8

State government, excluding education

2,678.5 2,756.4 2,759.3 2,765.3 2,691.4 2,766.5 2,774.9 2,778.6 3.7

Local government

14,580 14,903 14,720 14,914 14,430 14,711 14,732 14,770 38

Local government education

8,185.1 8,308.9 8,155.2 8,312.9 7,919.8 8,038.7 8,041.0 8,053.2 12.2

Local government, excluding education

6,394.5 6,594.0 6,564.4 6,601.1 6,510.6 6,671.9 6,690.6 6,716.3 25.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicle manufacturing, motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing, and motor vehicle parts manufacturing.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.5 34.4 34.2 34.3

Goods-producing

40.0 39.7 39.4 39.7

Mining and logging

45.8 45.5 44.6 45.0

Construction

39.0 39.0 38.5 38.9

Manufacturing

40.3 39.8 39.8 39.9

Durable goods

40.7 40.3 40.2 40.4

Nondurable goods

39.5 39.0 39.1 39.1

Private service-providing

33.4 33.3 33.1 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 33.9 33.6 33.9

Wholesale trade

38.8 38.9 38.9 39.1

Retail trade

30.0 29.7 29.4 29.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.4 38.5 38.1 38.0

Utilities

42.4 41.7 42.2 42.3

Information

36.5 36.3 36.3 36.4

Financial activities

37.4 37.4 37.3 37.4

Professional and business services

36.6 36.4 36.3 36.4

Private education and health services

33.4 33.3 33.2 33.2

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.8 25.4 25.6

Other services

32.3 32.3 32.2 32.3

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 2.9 2.8 3.0

Durable goods

3.1 3.0 2.9 3.1

Nondurable goods

2.8 2.6 2.7 2.7

Footnotes
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)

Total private

$33.15 $34.34 $34.52 $34.57 $1,143.68 $1,181.30 $1,180.58 $1,185.75

Goods-producing

33.39 34.92 35.07 35.11 1,335.60 1,386.32 1,381.76 1,393.87

Mining and logging

37.13 38.76 39.15 39.32 1,700.55 1,763.58 1,746.09 1,769.40

Construction

35.86 37.31 37.56 37.53 1,398.54 1,455.09 1,446.06 1,459.92

Manufacturing

31.71 33.23 33.33 33.40 1,277.91 1,322.55 1,326.53 1,332.66

Durable goods

33.22 34.93 35.10 35.19 1,352.05 1,407.68 1,411.02 1,421.68

Nondurable goods

29.13 30.25 30.26 30.27 1,150.64 1,179.75 1,183.17 1,183.56

Private service-providing

33.10 34.20 34.39 34.44 1,105.54 1,138.86 1,138.31 1,146.85

Trade, transportation, and utilities

28.65 29.61 29.71 29.71 974.10 1,003.78 998.26 1,007.17

Wholesale trade

36.22 37.21 37.24 37.39 1,405.34 1,447.47 1,448.64 1,461.95

Retail trade

23.77 24.25 24.22 24.17 713.10 720.23 712.07 720.27

Transportation and warehousing

28.67 30.24 30.51 30.57 1,100.93 1,164.24 1,162.43 1,161.66

Utilities

49.02 50.43 50.77 50.75 2,078.45 2,102.93 2,142.49 2,146.73

Information

47.98 49.11 49.08 48.85 1,751.27 1,782.69 1,781.60 1,778.14

Financial activities

42.57 44.51 44.81 45.06 1,592.12 1,664.67 1,671.41 1,685.24

Professional and business services

39.83 41.24 41.43 41.53 1,457.78 1,501.14 1,503.91 1,511.69

Private education and health services

32.68 33.64 33.83 33.91 1,091.51 1,120.21 1,123.16 1,125.81

Leisure and hospitality

20.82 21.59 21.67 21.79 532.99 557.02 550.42 557.82

Other services

29.70 31.06 31.20 31.26 959.31 1,003.24 1,004.64 1,009.70

Footnotes
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2024 – Feb.
2024(P)
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Percent change from:
Jan.
2024 – Feb.
2024(P)

Total private

114.8 115.9 115.4 115.9 0.4 181.9 190.3 190.4 191.6 0.6

Goods-producing

98.1 98.3 97.6 98.4 0.8 148.0 155.1 154.7 156.2 1.0

Mining and logging

91.1 91.9 89.7 90.5 0.9 135.8 143.1 141.0 142.9 1.3

Construction

106.8 109.2 108.0 109.4 1.3 166.5 177.0 176.3 178.5 1.2

Manufacturing

93.8 92.8 92.9 93.1 0.2 138.3 143.4 143.9 144.5 0.4

Durable goods

92.5 92.4 92.2 92.7 0.5 136.5 143.4 143.7 144.9 0.8

Nondurable goods

95.9 93.7 94.1 94.0 -0.1 141.8 143.8 144.5 144.3 -0.1

Private service-providing

119.3 120.6 120.1 121.0 0.7 192.0 200.5 200.7 202.6 0.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities

107.2 106.9 105.9 107.0 1.0 165.6 170.7 169.7 171.5 1.1

Wholesale trade

104.2 105.7 105.6 106.2 0.6 157.8 164.5 164.6 166.0 0.9

Retail trade

95.3 94.3 93.5 94.8 1.4 149.8 151.2 149.7 151.6 1.3

Transportation and warehousing

145.4 144.2 142.1 142.2 0.1 212.0 221.9 220.6 221.1 0.2

Utilities

104.4 105.3 106.9 107.8 0.8 169.1 175.5 179.4 180.7 0.7

Information

101.7 99.9 100.1 100.4 0.3 173.7 174.6 174.9 174.6 -0.2

Financial activities

112.1 113.1 112.8 113.1 0.3 186.1 196.4 197.2 198.8 0.8

Professional and business services

130.4 130.3 130.2 130.6 0.3 210.4 217.7 218.5 219.7 0.5

Private education and health services

136.2 140.5 140.6 141.1 0.4 214.1 227.3 228.8 230.1 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

119.9 123.8 121.9 123.3 1.1 201.4 215.6 213.2 216.8 1.7

Other services

107.7 109.2 109.0 109.5 0.5 175.3 185.9 186.4 187.7 0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month’s estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(P) Preliminary

NOTE: Data have been revised to reflect March 2023 benchmark levels and updated seasonal adjustment factors.

ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)
Feb.
2023
Dec.
2023
Jan.
2024(P)
Feb.
2024(P)

Total nonfarm

77,212 78,443 78,575 78,689 49.8 49.9 49.9 49.9

Total private

64,046 64,978 65,063 65,140 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.4

Goods-producing

4,962 5,013 5,018 5,009 23.1 23.1 23.1 23.0

Mining and logging

81 84 85 85 12.8 13.1 13.3 13.3

Construction

1,116 1,160 1,162 1,164 14.0 14.3 14.3 14.3

Manufacturing

3,765 3,769 3,771 3,760 29.1 29.1 29.1 29.0

Durable goods

2,014 2,032 2,025 2,025 24.9 24.9 24.9 24.8

Nondurable goods

1,751 1,737 1,746 1,735 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.0

Private service-providing